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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Conceptual model of major pathways through which vitamin D deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to CKD progression and complications such as premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). VSM, vascular smooth muscle.

Figure 2: Conceptual model of major pathways through which vitamin D deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to CKD progression and complications such as premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). VSM, vascular smooth muscle.