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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 862-867

Incidence of hyponatremia in acute bronchiolitis


1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Pediatrics, Ministry of Health, Tanta, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Haitham Y Hassbou
Department of Pediatrics, Ministry of Health, Tanta
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_377_18

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Objective To assess the incidence and early detection of hyponatremia (below 135 mmol/l) associated with acute bronchoilitis in infants. Background Acute bronchiolitis is the most common disease of lower respiratory tract during the first year of life. It occurs as an annual epidemic in winter, and it often affects the child's ability to feed. Hyponatremia is a prognostic factor that might predict the disease course of children with severe bronchiolitis. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 300 patients having acute bronchiolitis from February 2015 to February 2016. They were divided into two groups: group I included 240 patients with normal serum sodium level (135–145 mmol/l), and group II consisted of 60 patients with low serum sodium level (<135 mmol/l). Detailed history; routine, physical examination; length of hospital stay; and clinical severity scores were done. Results There was a highly significant statistical difference regarding length of stay in hospital (P = 0.001) and clinical scores on days 3 and 5 (P = 0.001 for both). There was a highly significant positive correlation between chest radiography and length of stay in hospital (r = 0.441, P = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between family history of allergy and length of stay in hospital in normonatremic patients (r = −0.238, P = 0.008), as well as a negative correlation between age and length of stay in hospital (r = −0.241, P = 0.007). Conclusion Hyponatremia on the day of hospitalization was associated with a higher severity of disease. It is a prognostic factor that might improve our ability to predict the disease course of children with severe bronchiolitis. Serum sodium should be measured in all patients with bronchiolitis within 48 h from admission. Further studies are needed to assess the incidence of hyponatremia in bronchiolitis on a broad scale and to follow-up the course of the disease.


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