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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1459-1465

Screening of vitamin D deficiency among preschool children in family health facilities


1 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Pathology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
3 Department of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Safa H Alkalash
Shebeen El-Kom, Menoufia
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_188_19

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Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among preschool children in family health facilities in Birket El Sabaa district. Background Vitamin D deficiency in childhood may play an important function in pathophysiology not only of rickets but also of nonskeletal diseases that have an immune system-mediated pathogenesis. Patients and methods An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 preschool children who attended the selected family health facilities in Birket El Sabaa district during the period of data collection (3 months). This study started on the1st of April 2018 and lasted till March 2019. History, clinical examination, and serum vitamin D level measurement were conducted. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among preschool children was 63.5%, and 20.83% of them had mild deficiency, 31.25% moderate deficiency and, 11.46% had severe deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was more among male children (54.10%) than female (45.90%). Fatigue, bone fracture, and delayed teething were significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient children than normal children. There was a statistically significant difference between vitamin D-deficient children and normal children regarding sex, education and work of mother, socioeconomic state, and sun exposure. Conclusion From the current study, we can conclude that vitamin D deficiency among preschool children was 63.5%. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were male children who had basically educated and working mothers and moderate socioeconomic status. Vitamin D deficiency was more among obese, exclusively breastfed children and who ate fish and egg and drank milk once daily and who did not have enough sun exposure. Fatigue and bone fracture were significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient children than normal children.


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