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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 1037-1042

Screening intelligence of primary school children using 'draw-a-person test' in Mansoura district, Al Dakahlia Governorate


Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed A. M. Dagher
Mohamed Hassan Street, Moubarak City, Manosura
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_790_17

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Objective The aim was to screen the intelligence level among primary school children using 'draw-a-person (DAP) test' in Dakahlia Governorate. Background For more than 100 years, clinicians and psychologists have studied children's drawing as a measure of one's cognitive ability. In 1926, Florence Goodenough developed a drawing test called the DAP test. The DAP test consists of having a child draw -a whole person on a piece of paper that is scored via a list of items that are commonly present in the drawings. It showed that a child's drawing is a reflection of one's intellectual skills and development. Participants and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1012 of apparently healthy primary school children aged from 6 to 12 years in Mansoura district, Dakahlia Governorat from October 2015 to February 2016. Mansoura district includes 157 primary schools, of which three schools are in the central area including 1006 students, 75 schools in Mansoura east administration including 23 439 students, and 80 schools in Mansoua west administration including 27 630 students. The total number of students chosen was 1012 distributed to 32 schools, out of which 20 schools were in rural areas and 10 schools were in urban areas. All of them are governmental primary schools. No language schools and none of them received specific qualified drawing lessons. Children with hearing loss or mental disability were not included as they have separate nonincluded schools. Some students with physical disability not affecting the test were included, for example polio. All students in the study were subjected to an adequate assessment of history, full clinical examination, socioeconomic level, school achievement, and also subjected to DAP test. Results The study showed that children with superior intelligence represented 10.9%, those with average intelligence 69.2%, and with borderline intellectual function 17.3%, and children with mild mental retardation 2.7%. Also positive correlations were found between intelligence quotient (IQ) levels and socioeconomic standards, school achievement, residence, and BMI. There was no correlation between IQ levels and children's sex. Conclusion IQ levels obtained by DAP test were positively correlated with socioeconomic standards, BMI, residence, and school achievement. No correlation was found between IQ levels and sex.


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