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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 944-953

Effect of exercise and/or melatonin on spatial learning and memory of d-galactose-treated rats


1 Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Marwa M Adel
MD of Clinical Physiology, Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-kom, Menoufia, 32511
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.202490

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Background The antioxidant effect of swimming exercise and melatonin may combat against brain oxidative stress, hippocampal damage, and spatial learning and memory impairment induced by chronic exposure of rats to d-galactose. Objective This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise and/or melatonin on spatial learning and memory impairment induced by d-galactose in rats. Materials and methods Thirty adult male albino rats (each weighing 250–370 g) were divided into five equal groups: the control group (C), the d-galactose-treated group (G), the exercised d-galactose-treated group (EG), the melatonin and d-galactose-treated group (MG), and the combined exercised melatonin and d-galactose-treated group (CEMG). The duration of concomitant administration of treatments was 10 weeks. At the end of the 10th week of the study, spatial learning and memory of all groups were assessed using the Barnes maze test for 5 days; malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity were estimated in brain tissue homogenate and histopathological changes in rat hippocampus were assessed. Results In the EG, MG, and CEMG groups, the mean errors and mean escape latency per day on day 1 of the acquisition phase and the probe phase of the Barnes maze test were significantly lower than that in the G group, denoting a significant improvement in spatial learning and memory. In addition, these three groups showed a significant decline in hippocampal damage and malondialdehyde level compared with the G group. In the EG and CEMG groups, superoxide dismutase activity in brain tissue homogenate was significantly higher than that in the G group, but it was nonsignificantly changed in the MG group. Conclusion Swimming exercise and/or melatonin reduced brain oxidative stress, hippocampal damage, and consequently improved spatial learning and memory impairment induced by d-galactose. Combined treatment showed better synergistic antioxidant and neuroprotective effect compared with either treatment alone.


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