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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1122-1129

Biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes on the liver of adult albino rats due to dependence on tramadol, diazepam, and their combination


1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Reham H Mohamed
Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia Governorate, 32511
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.202526

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Objective This study aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the dependence of tramadol, diazepam, and their combination on the liver of adult albino rats. Background Nowadays, tramadol is the most common drug of abuse; it has been associated with a wide range of drug abuse such as benzodiazepines. The combination of tramadol and benzodiazepines has serious detrimental effects on the liver. Materials and methods In this study, 40 adult albino male rats weighing 180–200 g were obtained from the breeding animal house in Menoufia University; they were divided into four groups: group 1 (control) received 1 ml/day normal saline (0.9%) by oral tube, group 2 (tramadol dependent) received increasing doses of tramadol by oral tube for 1 month, group 3 (diazepam dependent) received increasing doses of diazepam by oral tube for 1 month, and group 4 (combination of both drugs) received increasing doses of tramadol and diazepam by oral tube for 1 month. At the end of the experimental period blood samples were taken from all groups for evaluation of the liver function, after which the rats were killed. In addition, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the liver were carried out. Results Tramadol and diazepam dependence affect the liver function parameters, as alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were significantly elevated. Liver enzymes were much affected by their combination; these results were proved by the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the liver tissue. Conclusion Tramadol or diazepam dependence for a long time might affect the hepatic cells and the combination of both of them leads to more hepatotoxic effect. Therefore, it is recommended that tramadol or diazepam should be taken only with the prescription of doctor and that self-medication of these drugs may be hazardous.


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