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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 310-315

Passive smoking as a stress factor in diabetic children


1 Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department ofClinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Rabab A Elsabagh
MBBCh, El Roda, Berkett-Elsaba, Menoufia
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.141685

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Objective This study aimed to measure urinary cotinine level and urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio as a biomarker of passive smoking in diabetic children. DNA damage was estimated in peripheral leukocytes by a DNA fragmentation assay in diabetic children. Background Exposure to passive smoking is associated with a number of health hazards such as prenatal damage to the fetus, poor growth, respiratory illness, atopy and asthma, coronary heart disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Patients and methods This study was carried out on 54 diabetic children attending the Genetic and Endocrine Unit of the Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University. The children were divided into two groups: group I (34 children exposed to passive smoking) and group II (20 children not exposed to passive smoking). The studied groups were subjected to a detailed assessment of history, thorough clinical examination, investigations, and family counseling. Results Significantly higher urinary cotinine levels and urinary cotinine/creatinine ratios were found in children with a history of exposure to passive tobacco smoke (120.4 ± 86.2 and 173.7 ± 130.1, respectively) in comparison with children with no history of exposure (2901.5 ± 1423.2 and 3284.7 ± 2322.8, respectively, P ≤ 0.000), and the urinary cotinine levels were found to be dependent on the daily exposure to tobacco smoke as indicated by the number of cigarettes consumed by the smoker in the presence of the child. Also, significantly higher positive gel electrophoresis results (DNA damage) were found in children with a history of exposure to passive tobacco smoke (29.4%) in comparison with children with no history of exposure (0%). Conclusion Passive smoking is a risk factor for many health hazards and cotinine is a valuable biomarker for assessment of exposure to second-hand smoking, especially among children. Also, passive smoking is a cause of enhanced apoptotic changes in diabetic children.


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